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Annotated Bibliography

"The ABCs of Public Financing for Early Care & education: A Research and Advocacy Resource Book." Institute for Women's Policy Research. Project Funded by John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, 2001.

This report provides researchers, advocates, and policy makers the necessary tools to investigate issues related to early education and care financing in the US.

Adams, Gina and Kathleen Snyder. "State Child Care Profile for Children with Employed Mothers: New York," Assessing the New Federalism: State Profiles. Urban Institute, 2001. (

This report provides data on child care arrangements in New York State. The data includes types of care arrangements, number of child care providers, hours spend in child care, and the amount families spent in child care.

Barnett, W.S. "Long-term effects of early childhood programs on cognitive and school outcomes." In The future of children, Vol. 5, No. 3. Los Altos, CA: The David and Lucille Packard Foundation Center for the Future of Children. 1995.

A review of the effects of early childhood programs on the development of children from low-income families, focusing on cognitive and school outcomes.

Besharov, Douglas J. with Nazanin Samari. "Child Care After Welfare Reform," in The New World of Welfare, edited by Rebbeca Blank and Ron Haskins. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2001 (461 - 481).

This article examines whether welfare reform has been successful in moving welfare recipients into paid employment. Some of the issues addressed in the article include child care demand and funding after welfare reform and state policy for providing early care and education programs.

"Bringing Business to the Table, a Stakeholders Roundtable, Involving Business in Systemic Child Care Subsidies". A Project of The Claremont Graduate University: Educational Studies. Pasadena, CA. October 2000.

This is a useful study that brainstorms ways to get business involved in child care. It explains what many different positive examples of things that are happening around the country.

Burton, Alice, Marcy Whitebook, et al (May 2002). "Estimating the Size and Components of the U.S. Child Care Workforce and Caregiving Population." Washington, D.C.: Center for the Child Care Workforce. (

This report provides a framework and methodology for estimating the size and characteristics of the US child care workforce.

Cabrera, Natasha, Robert Hutchers, and H. Elizabeth Peters. "From Welfare to Child Care." Poverty Research News Vol. 6, NO2, March-April, 2002.

The articles in this issue of Poverty Research News reviews recent research on maternal employment and child well-being. The articles look long-term effects of early child hood programs, the effects of mother's early employment on the children's school readiness and cognitive development.

"A Catalog of tax-Based Approaches for Financing Child Care." National Women's Law Center, 2001.

This report examines some of these tax-based approaches and identifies some of the advantages and disadvantages of each model.

"Changing Governance to Achieve Better Results for Children and Families." The Center for the Study of Social Policy. December 1995. 

This paper examines new models, more integrated and locally-oriented models for governance of human services and schools.

Cherry, Robert and Sawicky, Max. "Giving Tax Credit Where Credit is Due." April 2000. 

This paper is about improving tax credits for low-income families with children, specifically the EITC. It touches on the child and dependent care tax credit.

"Child Care $ubsidy: an Investment Strategy for North Carolina" by the Day Care Services Association, Inc. Chapel Hill, NC. 1996. (909) 967-3772.

This report attempts to demonstrate that increased investment in child care subsidies is an effective method for raising rates of self-sufficiency among low-income families and increasing the cost effectiveness of government programs that supports these families.

"The Child Care Partnership: A Guide to Engaging Parents in Public-Private Child Care Partnerships." U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Accessed June 1, 2002.

This guide includes a description of some roles that parents can play in a community effort to establish public-private partnerships for financing child care, reasons that parents should be involved, ideas for how to engage parents, and then specific tools for engaging parents.

Copeland, Tom 1991. Contracts and Policies: How to be Businesslike in a Caring Profession. St. Paul, Minnesota, Redleaf Press.

Good overview of what operating a family childcare business entails. Gave us an idea of what assumptions we should make when estimating supply side numbers (e.g. family providers generally do not know what their costs are, may not know what their total income is etc.)

Copeland, Tom 1992. Basic Guide to Family Childcare Record Keeping. St. Paul, Minnesota, Redleaf Press.

Detailed explanation of what the record keeping process should be for family childcare providers. Provides a list of expenses and ranges for family childcare providers and a range for total monthly expenses.

Copeland, Tom 1997. Tax Workbook. St. Paul, Minnesota, Redleaf Press.

Provides information on tax deductions for family childcare providers. In particular, we used this text to determine what the time-space percentages would be for various childcare arrangements. With the time-space percentages and an estimate of monthly costs of utilities and value of home and furniture, we were able to calculate the amount of depreciation and monthly expenses attributed to business use.

"Credit Where Credit Is Due." National Women's Law Center, 2002.

This report provides information on Dependent Care Tax Credit, Child Tax Credit, Earned Income Tax Credit, and Dependent Care Assistant Program.

Childcare Needs Assessment and Profile of Childcare in Tompkins County. Day Care and Child Development Council of Tompkins County (DCC). Ithaca. 2001. (

The report examines the results of a survey done by the Day Care and Child Development Council of Tompkins County in collaboration with Tompkins County Community Action Head Start. The survey looks at child care arrangements in the county.

Donahue, Elisabeth Hirschhorn and Nancy Duff Campbell (April 2002). "Making Child Care Less Taxing: Suggestions for Improving the Child and Dependent Care Tax Credit." Washington, D.C.: National Women's Law Center.

This article provides an overview of the child and dependent care (CADC) tax credit available in different states throughout the US.

"The Economic Impact of Child Care Industry in California." A study prepared by Steve Moss, M.P.P., Partner, M. Cubed. Sponsored by The National Economic Development and Law Center, Fall 2001. (

This report examines the economic impact of child care in California, looking at the recirculation of child care spending in the local economy, the impact of parents' earnings, and the tax effects of the industry.

"The Economic Impact of Vermont's Child Care Industry." Windham Child Care Association and Peace and Justice Center, 2002. (

This report examines the economic impact of the child care industry in Vermont, including the supply of and demand for care, the number of jobs created, and the multiplier effect of the industry.

Effective Language for Discussing Early Childhood Education and Policy. Washington, D.C.: The Benton Foundation, 1998. (

This article discusses frames that can help move public opinion towards greater approval of public support for early care and education.

Ewen, D., Goldstein, A. "Report on the Activities of the States Using Child Care and Development Block Grant Quality Improvement Funds." National Child Care Information Center. August 1996.

This report gives an overview of the activities funded by the states using the funds available for quality improvement and supply building in the Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG).

Folbre, Nancy. 1994. Who Pays for the Kids: Gender and the Structures of Constraint. Routledge,: New York

Folbre's thesis in this book is that unequal gender responsibilities for care of children systematically disadvantage women economically and have negative consequences for families. She argues for increased public responsibility for support of families.

Ganow, Michelle. "Child Care Subsidies: Strategies to Provide Outreach to Eligible Families," Welfare Information Network, Vol. 4, No.10, September 2000.

This article describes outreach strategies being used at the state and local levels to inform low-income families about their child care options and their eligibility for child care subsidies.

Giannarelli, L. and Barsimantor, J. "Child Care Expenses of American Families." Washington D.C. The Urban Institute. December 2000. (

Based on the Survey of American Families (1997) this report examines different types of child care and the costs to parents across the US.

Greenberg, Mark H. "Spend or Transfer, Federal or State? Considerations in Using TANF and TANG-Related Dollars for Child Care." Center for Law and Social Policy. January 1998. (

This article looks at different child care funding streams used to assist low-income families. It also explores TANF fund transfers, child care through the Welfare to Work program, and use of state funds.

Greenberg, Mark, Lombardi, Joan, and Schumacher, Rachel. "The Child Care and Development Fund: An Overview." Prepared in connection with the "Linkages and Collaboration Across Early Childhood Education Systems" Project, funded by the Foundation for Child Development and Being. Center for Law and Social Policy. June 2000. (

This article looks at the administration, funding levels, eligibility, and monitoring of the Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF).

Harrington, Mona. 1999. Care and Equality: Inventing a New Family Politics. Knopf: New York.

Harrington argues in this book that both conservative and liberal politics have traditionally ignored the issue of care in families lives. She argues that a new politics should work for increased public support for family labor.

Helburn, Suzanne W., & Bergmann, Barbara R. (2002). America’s Child Care Problem: The Way Out. New York: Palgrave.

This book takes a detailed look at the child care industry, both how it stands currently and how it can and should be changed.

Helburn, Suzanne W. & Carollee Howes. "Child care Costs and Quality." The Future of children: Financing Child Care, Vol.6 -No. 2 (Summer/Fall 1996).

This article examines two studies on the costs and quality of child care in centers and family child care homes.

Hofferth, Sandra L. and Nancy Collins. 2000. "Child Care and Employment Turnover." Population Research and Policy Review, 19(4): 357-395.

This study found that mothers with inadequate or no child care were twice as likely to leave their jobs.

"Investing in Child Care: Challenges facing Working Parents and Private Sector Response." U.S. Department of the Treasury. 1998. (

This report looks at what businesses can do to promote employees access to affordable, high quality child care.

Joesch, Jutta M. and Briget G. Hiedemann (1997). The Demand for Non-relative Child Care Among Preschoolers: A double Hurdle Approach. (

This report examines the fact that many parents do not use non-parental care for their young children, even when both parents work.

Kaplan, April. "Financial Resources for Child Care," Welfare Information Network, Vol. 2, NO.06, April 1998.

This article reviews the sources of funding for child care and discusses the ways in which those funds can be used.

Layzer, Jean I. and Ann Colins (2000). National Study of Child Care for Low Income Families. Cambridge, MA: Abt Associates. (

This report provides information on state and local policy regarding the child care needs of low-income families. it also examines the factors that influence the employment and child care choices of low-income families.

Lemke, Robert et al. "Child Care and Welfare to Work Transition." National Bureau of Economic Research. Working Paper 7583, March 2000.

This article looks at the role of child care in the welfare to work transition in the State of Massachusetts based on a comprehensive database. [See article]

Long, Sharon K. and Clark, Sandra J. "The New Child Care Block Grant: State Funding Choices and Their Implications." A product of "Assessing the New Federalism" at the Urban Institute. October 1997. (

This article outlines the changes in federal child care programs and examines the implications of alternative scenarios for child care funding across states in the US.

"A Methodology Guide: Creating an Economic Impact Report for the Childcare Industry". National Development and Law Center (NED&LC) 2001. Oakland. NED&LC.

This report offers detailed explanation of how the state of California conducted their economic impact analysis of the child care industry.

Mitchell, Anne, Louise Stoney, Harriet Dichter. 2001. Financing Child Care in the United States: An Expanded Catalog of Current Strategies, 2001 Edition E.M. Kaufman Foundation: Kansas City. (

This report profiles hundreds of recent innovations in financing child care, through both public and private sources.

Morris, A. Pamela. "The Effects of Welfare Reform Policies on Children", Social Policy Report. Society for research in Child Development, Vol. XVI - NO 1, 2002. (

This report looks at the effect of welfare reform's employment policy on children in different states throughout the US.

O'Brien, Mary. "Financing Strategies to Support Comprehensive, Community-based Services for Children and Families." National Child Welfare Resource Center for Organizational Improvement. Reprinted for The Finance Project. March 1997. 

This paper examines a series of initiatives in which state and county governments are working to change the financing of child and family services to support the development of more comprehensive, community-based services.

Okuyama, Kuniko and Roberta B. Weber. "Parents Receiving Child care Subsidies: Where Do They Work?" October 2001. Oregon Child Care Research Partnership: Linn-Benton Community College.

This study examines the employment patterns of parents receiving child care subsidies in four US states and in the District of Columbia.

Orland, Martin E., Danegger, Anna E., and Foley, Ellen. "Creating More Comprehensive, Community-based Support Systems: The Critical Role of Finance." Prepared for The Finance Project. November 1995.

This paper describes the current system of children's financing and documenting the number, types, and funding levels of major federal programs for children. It also examines how these financing structures inhibit the creation, effective implementation, and institutionalization of more comprehensive, community-based program designs.

Orland, Martin E. and Foley, Ellen. "Beyond Decategorization: Defining Barriers and Potential Solutions to Creating Effective Comprehensive, Community-based Support Systems for Children and Families. Prepared for The Finance Project. April 1996.

This paper analyzes existent that inhibit the development of effective comprehensive community-based service initiatives for children and families. It also identifies policy directions, particularly at the state level, that appear to hold promise for overcoming these constraints.

"A Planning Guide: Linking Childcare to Economic Development". National Development and Law Center (NED&LC) 2001. Oakland. NED&LC.

This report gives child care advocates the necessary tools to combine their efforts with the expertise of the economic development field to promote further investment in early care and education.

Smith, Kristin (2000). Who's Minding the Kids? Child Care Arrangements: Fall 1995. Current Population Reports, P70-70. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Census Bureau. (

This report shows the number and characteristics of children in different child care arrangements and the characteristics of their families. The data come from a 1995 survey.

Stoney, Louise. 1998. LOOKING INTO NEW MIRRORS: Lessons for Early Childhood Finance and System Building, Horizons Initiative.

Stoney discusses models from other policy areas that may shed new light on financing child care and on structuring networks of providers.

Stoney, Louise and Mark H. Greenberg. "The Financing of Child Care: Current and Emerging Trends." The Future of Children, Issue: Financing Child Care, Vol. 6, No 2, Summer/Fall 1996.

A description of current child care financing from all sources, and analysis of underlying policy tensions that remains to be resolved.

Toder, Eric J. "The Changing Composition of Tax Incentives, 1980-99." The Urban Institute: March 1999. Available online at

This paper is about federal government tax expenditures and it includes a chart in the appendix that gives the percentage of GDP for each type of expenditure.

Tout, Kathryn, Martha Zaslow, et al (2001). Early Care and Education: Work Support for Families and Developmental Opportunity for Young Children. Washington, D.C.: The Urban Institute. (

This report uses data from the 1997 National Survey of America's families (NASF) to investigate how young children's experience in early care and education differ across age groups and across families with different needs for non parental care and resources to pay for care.